Friday, May 22, 2020

Honesty And Integrity At Arthur Andersen - 1814 Words

Arthur Andersen From Honesty to Fraud At the end of 2001, the reputation of honesty and integrity at Arthur Andersen LLP plummeted to the bottom. The public trust in their ability to perform independent and trustworthy audits had completely vanished. The firm, which for centuries had been a leader in setting audit standards, was now indicted with obstructing of justice when it became known how much knowledge Arthur Andersen had of the wrongdoings at Enron as well as the destruction of papers to the paper trail. One after one, clients of the firm, started to leave while the partners at Andersen searched for solutions to their problems. In the beginning, long before Arthur Andersen LLP became one of the largest audit firms with 85 thousand employees all over the world and 28 thousand in US , the founder of the firm; Arthur Andersen refused to approve a deviating transaction in purpose of inflating profit, while working with a local train company in 1914. Arthur Andersen replied that there was not enough money in the city of Chicago to make him agree to it, even though it put him at risk of going bankrupt. Another famous story of the firm’s integrity is one about a young accountant who recounted 900 thousand bricks three times when the inventory said it should be a million. The owner at the brickyard was furious at first when confronted with the discrepancy. The diligent work though, led to the discovery of an inside job where one of the managers was stealing bricks atShow MoreRelatedEnron Corporation: An Electivity and Natural Gas Company1621 Words   |  7 Pagestheir jobs and lost their life savings that they had invested in Enron’s shares. Soon after Enron collapsed, Arthur Andersen, a well respected accounting firm that was also one of the big five accounting firms at the time, was found guilty of obstruction of justice after David Duncan, the lead partner of Enron audit engagement, agreed to testify against his former employer, Arthur Andersen. After Kenneth Lay was appointed the chair and the CEO of Enron, he quickly adapted an aggressive innovativeRead MoreThe Ethics Of The Accounting Profession1210 Words   |  5 Pagesthat one learns as a result of their childhood upbringing and culture. Morals differ from ethics as morals are personal in nature; on the other hand, ethical standards must be same for everyone. Virtues are positive character traits such as integrity and honesty, which a person develops over time. Moral and ethics are classified as good and bad, while laws are categorized as right or wrong. A person’s ethical beliefs not only influence their decisions on a day-to-day basis, they also influence businessRead MoreManagement Planning- Arthur Anderson1299 Words   |  6 Pagesmanagement within Arthur Andersen. Specifically, the paper will discuss at least one legal, ethical, and social responsibility issue that impacts Arthur Andersen. Additionally, this paper will analyze the impact these factors h ave on Arthur Andersen’s management planning. Finally, this paper will analyze at least three factors that influence Arthur Andersen’s strategic, tactical, operational, and contingency planning. The firm of Arthur Andersen LLP was founded in 1913 by Arthur Andersen and ClarenceRead MoreEthics And A New Accountants Perspective On Enron1217 Words   |  5 Pagesone learns as a result of their childhood upbringing and culture. Morals differ from ethics because morals are personal in nature; on the other hand, ethical standards must be same for everyone. Virtues are positive character traits such as integrity and honesty, which a person develops over time. Moral and ethics are classified as good and bad, while laws are categorized as right or wrong. A person’s ethical beliefs not only influence their decisions on a day-to-day basis, they also influence businessRead MoreThe Ethics Of The Accounting Profession1204 Words   |  5 Pagesone learns as a result of their childhood upbringing and culture. Morals differ from ethics because morals are personal in nature; on the other hand, ethical standards must be same for everyone. Virtues are positive character traits su ch as integrity and honesty, which a person develops over time. Moral and ethics are classified as good and bad, while laws are categorized as right or wrong. A person’s ethical beliefs not only influence their decisions on a day-to-day basis, they also influence businessRead MoreManagement Planning of Arthur Anderson Essay1284 Words   |  6 Pagesmanagement within Arthur Andersen. Specifically, the paper will discuss at least one legal, ethical, and social responsibility issue that impacts Arthur Andersen. Additionally, this paper will analyze the impact these factors have on Arthur Andersen’s management planning. Finally, this paper will analyze at least three factors that influence Arthur Andersen’s strategic, tactical, operational, and contingency planning. The firm of Arthur Andersen LLP was founded in 1913 by Arthur Andersen and ClarenceRead MoreEthical Incidents in Organizations: Arthur Andersen777 Words   |  3 Pagesin Organizations: Arthur Andersen While the majority of people in the US are aware of the problems that were faced by Enron, most do not realize the impact the company had on other organizations which were also involved in the scandal. One such company was the accounting firm Arthur Andersen. While the firm is still technically in business, it is nothing like it was in the days before its ethical dilemma and scandal. The mission and core values that were touted by Arthur Andersen were violated byRead MoreEnron And The Enron Scandal847 Words   |  4 PagesThe Enron scandal, discovered in October 2001, eventually led to the bankruptcy of the Enron Corporation, an American energy company based mostly in Houston, Texas, and also the dissolution of Arthur Andersen, that was one amongst the 5 largest audit and accounting partnerships within the world. Additionally, to being the most important bankruptcy reorganization in American history at that point, Enron without doubt is the biggest audit failure. it s ever the fore most notable company within theRead MoreEnron And The Enron Corporation2203 Words   |  9 Pagesthe accounting world were enacted. The 2001 scandal involved two parties: Enron Corporation, a U.S. energy commodities firm, and their auditors Arthur Andersen, LLP, currently a U.S. holding company and formerly one of the â€Å"Big 5† U.S. accounting firms. When the scandal broke, Enron was one of the most innovative companies in the world and Arthur Andersen was the biggest professional services company in the world; so, when both companies fell, it completely changed the world of Accounting. The EnronRead MoreRise Fall of Arthur Andersen, LLP1016 Words   |  5 Pagesï » ¿ March 4, 2014 Rise Fall of Arthur Andersen, LLP Abstract Enron was a natural gas company that was formed in 1985 by Kenneth Lay. By 1992, Enron was the largest selling company of natural gas in North America. In October 2001 a scandal involving Enron was emerging. This scandal led to the fall of the company. The Enron case and many others cases led to the collapse of other companies that did business with them which included one

Saturday, May 9, 2020

The Data Breach At Opm - 1297 Words

The Data Breach at OPM The research paper will take an in-depth view of the current cyber threat and will explore the current efforts taken by the United States in combating the rapidly growing cyber threat. The research conducted will revolve around recent piece of legislation that are said to be the answer to combating cyber-crime. This paper will also look at past efforts and explore their failure and compare with the new piece of legislation to see if it will actually be effective. There are many cyber security techniques which have been implemented in the attempt to thwart the threat and have failed, what makes this approach different. The complexity of cyber-crime presents a major challenge because of the range of adversaries that are capable of executing an attack. Cyber-security has become one of the Nation’s leading concerns, President Obama identified this issue as one of the greatest challenges the nation faces. Though this might seem a little dramatic a report done by the Secret Service, who leads the Electronics Crimes Task Force reported a net loss of about $250 billion a year and rising (McAfee, 2009). Gen. Keith Alexander the director of the National Security Agency and oversees U.S. Cyber Command, who leads the efforts in combatting cybercrime stated cyberattacks are causing the greatest transfer of wealth in history. He also stated that cost of cybercrime has reached is $1 trillion, and urges congress to expand Americas efforts on Cyber defenseShow MoreRelatedData Breaches At The U.s. Office Of Personnel Management Essay1594 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction The data breaches at the U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) comprised of two likely connected and possibly coordinated incidents to obtain sensitive information of 4.2 million former and current government employees and security background information of 21.5 million individuals starting in July 2012 through 2015. This first report will provide information that describes the attack origin on how attackers gain access into the OPM infrastructure, the action performed, the assetsRead MoreInformation Security Management And Maintenance887 Words   |  4 PagesASSESSMENT OF BREACH There were a number of factors that contributed to the breach, which had they been addressed or had corresponding mitigation responses in place, would have reduced the likelihood that the breach would have taken place, or at a minimum reduce the impact of the attack. These items range from policy related issues, technology implementations, and security management and maintenance. Although I believe a number of these areas were in the process of being addressed, based onRead MoreData Breach At The U.s. Office Of Personnel Management Essay1600 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction The data breach at the U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) comprised of two likely connected and possibly coordinated incidents to obtain sensitive information of 4.2 million current and former government employees and security background information of 21.5 million individuals starting in July 2012 through 2015. This first report will provide information that describes the attack origin on how attackers gain access into the OPM infrastructure, the action performed, the assetsRead MoreFice Of Personnel Management Essay1715 Words   |  7 Pagesus. We read and see some organization somewhere had been breached and sensitive data stolen almost daily as the norm in this modern era. Well known big named organizations private and public alike have been hacked, violated and their priced information stolen in the virtual world. This paper examines the Office of Personnel Management (OPM)’s widely reported data breach and the mismanagement leading up to the breach. Explains how adhering to the fundamental principles of security practice: theRead MoreThe Federal Government1588 Words   |  7 PagesBy exposing important data and other information not only can put the United States as a whole in jeopardy, but the people who live in the United States would be affected as individuals too. Since such information is on file it is crucial that it be protected, in order to do so the best technology and employees are needed to ensure so. The Office of Personnel Management manages all polices that are created to support Federal human resources department (Gallagher). The OPM also oversees the classificationRead MoreThe United States Office Of Personnel Management1261 Words   |  6 PagesManagement (OPM) announced on June 4th, 2015 that hackers had intruded into its network to exfiltrate the personnel records of 4.2 million current and former government employees (Bisson). On June 23rd, FBI Director James Corney confirmed the OPM breach was much worse than originally thought, in total 21.5 million people were compromised. Information Security experts warn that this breach could threaten the United States’ national security for generations. It is important to study how the breach occurredRead MoreMy Support For Strong Encryption868 Words   |  4 Pagesinformation warehoused at the Office of Personal Management (OPM). The petition request that the government not erode the security of our personal devices, use hidden code within applications, pressure companies to keep and allow government access to data collected, mandate implementation of vulnerabilities or backdoors into products, or have disproportionate access to the keys to private data. This information is normally redirected back to the OPM and stored on their servers which could be hacked by individualsRead MoreProactive Incident Response : The Way Forward1348 Words   |  6 PagesProactive Incident Response: The Way Forward Any organization is critically dependent on data to perform its functions. Security breaches resulting from malicious code attacks, denial of service, employee negligence and theft, unauthorized access, policy violations, (ROCHA, 2012) and vendor leaks and mistakes, are on the ascendancy. Symantec reported a total of nine mega breaches in 2015, which indicated an alarming 429 million exposed identities (Cyber Security Incident Response: Shifting fromRead MoreA Documentary By Admiral Vern Essay1308 Words   |  6 PagesMission of the Office of Personnel Management The Office of Personnel Management also known as OPM, is an agency of the United States government that manages the civil service of the federal government. According to the website, they â€Å"conduct background checks, defend merits for the federal civil service, and they manage pension benefits for retired federal employees and their families† (OPM, 2016). OPM is an agency that delivers advantages to employ people with talent, and train them to achieve theirRead MoreSocial Security Case Study735 Words   |  3 Pagesof 1.1 million. The infringement of information would have a bearing on twenty-two million individuals that comprised confidential personal data which contained dates and places of birth, home addresses, and social security numbers. This for the government of the United States of America went down as one of the worst cyber-attacks ever (Lee, 2015). The OPM attack trail pointed to the country of China even though its government bureaucrats denied any participation in the conjunction associated with

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Why Not Have Physician Assisted Suicide Free Essays

During the course of the past 20 years, many people are starting to here more and more situations about people participating in physician-assisted suicide. The fact of the matter is that people are starting to believe that they have the right to control their own life and death decisions. After you begin to think about physician-assisted suicide, and bring in all the facts, it becomes clear that it should be allowed in our society if it is used properly. We will write a custom essay sample on Why Not Have Physician Assisted Suicide or any similar topic only for you Order Now Many people question the pure definition of physician-assisted suicide. According to the University of Washington School of Medicine, â€Å"physician-assisted suicide refers to the physician providing the means for death, most often with a prescription, in which the patient administers the medication† (Ethics in Medicine). As of 1997 the State of Oregon was the only state that utilize legalized physician-assisted suicide. Some people argue whether this practice is ethical to use today in our society. One strong reason why this should be done is because it is a good choice for people who are suffering unbearably. At times many physicians believe that it is their duty to relieve these people of their problems. One of the most famous arguments in favor of physician -assisted suicide is the story by Timothy Quill, and his patient â€Å"Diane†. Diane was a woman who was diagnosed with leukemia; from the beginning she refused the aggressive treatment. â€Å"She then requested a prescription of barbiturates that could be used to end her life if she determined that her suffering had become unbearable† (Annals of Internal Medicine). Diane was enrolled in a hospice program, many months passed but she began to feel a lot of pain, and fatigue. She used the barbiturates that her doctor gave her and ended her life. This was a very good case in favor of the practice because this woman was in serious pain, and the best solution was to end her life. Another example of a physician-assisted suicide incident that attracted some attention on the issue occurred with a 37-year-old woman named â€Å"BB†. This woman had a â€Å"serious stroke and soon after she became quadriplegic and unable to speak† (Annals of Internal Medicine). She spent many days learning to communicate with others around her by using a special computer. â€Å"Finding her life quality of life intolerable, she repeatedly communicated a wish to die† (Annals of Internal Medicine). She underwent some psychiatric counseling, and they agreed that she had the ability to do her own decision-making. So the staff â€Å"took away all of her artificial nutrition and hydration, and only provided comfort and care until she passed away soon after† (Annals of Internal Medicine). BB, like Diane, was also a prime example of a patient that was in need of physician-assisted suicide; she could no longer go through life the way she was and all she wanted was to die. Many of these patients bring up some important arguments for their reasons in which they have the right to use physician-assisted suicide. The University of Washington School of Medicine states that there are many arguments in favor of physician -assisted suicide or (PAS). The first of the four arguments in favor of PAS is the respect for autonomy of the patient. This means that the decisions about the circumstances for death are very personal. â€Å"They also state that a competent person should have the right to choose death†(Ethics in Medicine). The next argument for PAS is regarding to â€Å"justice. † â€Å"Justice requires that we treat like cases alike. Competent, terminally ill patients are allowed to hasten death by treatment refusal. For some patients, treatment refusal will not suffice to hasten death, and the only option is suicide. Justice requires that we should allow assisted death for these patients† (Ethics in Medicine). The third argument is the issue of compassion, according to the University of Washington School of Medicine. They explain that it is not always possible to relieve suffering, and PAS may be a compassionate response to that suffering of the Patients. The Individual liberty vs. state interest is one of the strongest arguments for PAS. A complete elimination of assisted death limits personal liberty of the individual. This is one of the main concerns about PAS, people believe that it is their body, and they should have the right to do what ever they feel is necessary. These are common arguments that have been used by patients and physicians all over the country. People against the issue of PAS debate many of these arguments and have come up with their own scenarios on the issue. Some common arguments against the PAS are â€Å"when you take a human life, it is morally wrong because of a certain religion† (Ethics In Medicine). Another argument is that some medical doctors like to maintain their professional integrity and are opposed to taking human life. Herbert Hendin states in his article â€Å"Selling Death and Dignity†, that † We should not buy into the view that those who are engulfed by fear of death or by suicidal despair that death is a preferred solution to the problems of illness, age, and depression†(Hendin 78). These arguments that are stated against physician-assisted suicide don’t seem to be strong enough to turn my feelings away from the idea that it is justified. In response to Hendin’s statement, he has no idea of all the pain and suffering that is happening to people, and what they go through. Religion is also an argument that doesn’t make much sense to me. The right thing to do if a patient is suffering from a serious illness or basically living on a â€Å"plug†, is to give them the opportunity to die the way they want and not worry about whether it is morally right, according to a religion. Also the argument made on behalf of some doctors, â€Å"that it harms their professional integrity† is also false. These ill patients think of their doctors as relieving them from pain and suffering. â€Å"Death is not caused by the withdraw of treatment from the physician, but by the underlying disease†(Annals of Medicine). Therefore, these ill patients are going to die either way, so the doctors shouldn’t feel that it is unprofessional to end a patient’s life if it is requested. One reason why people don’t want to let the PAS practice legalized is because they cannot find a certain policy to use it under. Physician-assisted suicide is debated upon regularly today and does not seem to be allowed in most states. One reason for this is because If it is legalized and it doesn’t have restrictions, there will be cases in which people will be going to the doctor to end their life for poor reasons. This form of PAS is unacceptable and that is why there should be a strict policy on the issue. If a patient goes to a doctor and asked for this procedure to be done, the physicians most look into the law on physician-assisted suicide. This policy should state that the practice can only be done if the patient has a serious illness, that is life threatening and undergoing massive amounts of pain, or lost some form of physical and mental abilities, from an illness such as a stroke. Another thing that would be included in this policy is that the patient requesting the practice must undergo some sort of psychiatric counseling to see whether he or she is in the right mind set for the procedure. This is important part of the policy, because PAS shouldn’t be performed if the patient is suffering only from some sort of depression. This policy will sort out the people who need the PAS and those who really don’t need it. This type of policy on physician-assisted suicide should be acted on in our government. Far too many people suffer, lying in hospital beds, wishing for an answer to their problems. They have lived a long enough, suffered physically, and emotionally, as â€Å"Diane† did in Timothy E. Quill’s article â€Å"Death and Dignity: A Case of Individualized Decision Making. † â€Å"We have measures to help control pain and lesson suffering, to think that people do not suffer in the process of dying is an allusion†(Quill 70), so we should not let this suffering continue on for people, and give them the choice to end their lives if they feel that is what they want. How to cite Why Not Have Physician Assisted Suicide, Essay examples

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

Integration And Animal Farm By Orwell Essays - Segregation

Integration And Animal Farm By Orwell Derrick Robicheaux Auditing 11:00-11:50 Integration of Education in the United States Throughout history, education is recognized as one of the key components of any civilized society. It is a natural instinct for man to learn, and feel the need to pass on that knowledge to their young and to all those who come behind them. People have a passion for education, and will fight for the opportunity to gain the valuable knowledge that education provides. The importance of education in a society is illustrated in two aspects. The first being the actual events in American history regarding the desegregation of schools, and the second being the action of the animals in George Orwell's Animal Farm upon receiving their liberation on Manor Farm. In recent times we have witnessed a struggle in American society for the opportunity of minorities to realize the education that their white counterparts received. It began with slavery, when blacks were prohibited from obtaining even the basic skills to read and write. When blacks were finally allowed this liberty, we began our own makeshift schools, and were content with this opportunity. As time progressed, and more formal schools were established, minorities realized that they were not receiving the same quality education as those of the majority. This sparked a legal battle that lasted over fifty years. The first landmark was the case of Plessy v. Ferguson in 1896. It established the doctrine of separate but equal. This concept stated that separate public facilities of equal quality do not violate the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment of the Constitution. This amendment says that no state may abridge the privileges of any citizen, nor may any state deprive any citizen of life, liberty, or property without due process of the law. In 1954, fifty-eight years later, the Case of Brown v. the Board of Education of Topeka finally settled the debate of whether or not blacks and whites can receive an education integrated with or separate from each other. This time the Supreme Court unanimously ruled to overturn the Plessy v. Ferguson decision. In his opinion, the Chief Justice wrote, We conclude that, in the field of public education, the doctrine of separate but equal has no place. Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal. The Brown case signaled the end of segregation of public places mandated by law. Once the Brown decision was handed down, the African-American community, along with progressive white Americans, placed sufficient pressure on the legal and political system to bring an end to state-supported segregation in all public facilities. Forty-six years removed from the Brown v. Board of Education decision formally desegregated public schools, African-American youth have made enormous progress in high school completion, in better test scores, in greater college enrollment, in obtaining college degrees and in careers. The endless stream of negative statistics tends to overshadow the individual accomplishments of those who found their way around the barriers and through the closed doors. The statistics support these positives. In 1967, the U.S. Census found that 54% of African-Americans between the ages of 25 and 29 had completed high school. By 1987, this number had risen to 83%. African-Americans also made some progress on achievement tests given by the National Achievement Education Program. Their reading scores had risen from 238 in 1971 to 274 in 1991. African-American student scores have risen on the SATs also, while other ethnic group scores have either lagged or remained unchanged. A few years back there was a decline in the numbers of African-Americans attending college, but that has turned around, particularly among women. These statistics are encouraging, but there are other facts that cannot be ignored. First, while African-American educational attainment has improved, the amount of education needed to have a real chance in life has grown even more. Second, general trends do not reflect how really awful education conditions are in some schools, in some regions, and for some groups, including African-Americans in urban areas. Third, the gap between white and African-American achievement remains substantial. There are still issues regarding the equality of education still today. There have been demographic changes, not only the flight of the white middle class to the suburbs after the Brown

Friday, March 20, 2020

The differences between a tough boss and a bad boss

The differences between a tough boss and a bad boss Those of us who have been in the work world for a while know all about the dreaded â€Å"difficult boss†- the boss who fills your thoughts with misery when you think about coming into work each day. The boss who somehow manages to make every work project and task more annoying and less enjoyable for everyone involved, and who’s skilled at chipping away at your confidence, self-esteem, and optimism with every encounter. Most of us have had the misfortune of having a difficult boss in our orbits and know just how unfortunate this reality can be. In fact, having a difficult boss may actually be worse for you than you even realize. Forbes recently published an article that highlighted a recent study by the University of Manchester’s Business School that uncovered a wide range of negative effects from having a toxic boss. These include higher rates of depression and negativity, lower job satisfaction, worse job performance, and a more pessimistic professional outlook - and the ripple effects spill out of the office and all over employees’ personal lives in a variety of detrimental ways. Clearly, having a difficult boss is not an ingredient for a happy life.That said, not all difficult bosses are created equally. In fact, a clear distinction should be made between the two types of difficult bosses- tough bosses and bad bosses. The short- and long-term effects they can have on you can be completely different, so it pays to know the difference. Let’s take a closer look at each of these two breeds of boss and see what makes each type tick.How to handle bad bossesMost of us know a flat-out bad boss when we see them, and the truth is that beyond a paycheck and perhaps bolstering our resumes, there’s very little upside to working with them. They’re constantly and consistently working to bring out the very worst in us and drain us of every last drop of energy and enthusiasm. Maybe it’s out of greed and selfishness for their own needs, with no regard for ours, or maybe they’re just simply terrible at being people and get some satisfaction from seeing us unhappy and squirming.Regardless of their motives, the end result of working with a bad boss is often the same- you spend way to much time trying to make them happy, which is often an elusive and unattainable goal, and you’re left miserable in the process. You often get nothing in return from the interaction and, even worse, it affects your entire life negatively. Like in any toxic relationship, you often come out of the bad boss experience shell-shocked and worse for wear, and it can take a while to shake off the ill effects.If this sounds like your situation, after diagnosing the problem you should see if there are any steps you can take to either improve the situation or minimize the impact. If there aren’t, consider whether or not it’s worth sticking it out. If not, figure out an exit strategy.How to handle tough bos sesThis breed of difficult boss doesn’t always make your professional life happy or fun, but there’s a significant difference between a bad boss and a tough boss. Where interacting with a bad boss is a toxic exchange that benefits you in no discernable way, having a tough boss can actually have the opposite effect- they can challenge you to be your best self, step out of your comfort zone, and build new and better professional skills. Tough bosses often have lofty demands and high expectations for both you and their companies, but is that such a bad thing? In fact, in some cutthroat industries where the level of competition is insanely high, having a tough boss at the helm can mean the difference between a company that navigates its way to success and a company that can’t distance itself from the crowd.Tough bosses often expect results and require a commitment to seeing things through to the end, regardless of whatever adversity or challenge rears its ugly head. But learning to face these things head-on can be great additions to your professional skill set- both at this job and in your future endeavors. Sure, there are limits, and there’s often a fine line between a tough boss and bad boss. But if the truth is that your boss often gets on your nerves and drives you crazy, but they’re actually helping you build better skills and are turning you into a better employee, then try to appreciate what you’re getting from this exchange and do your best to learn how to work with them in a way that minimizes the awfulness and allows you to continue to benefit from the situation.If you have a difficult boss, use the information here to diagnose whether your boss is tough or just plain bad. Then, take the necessary steps to make your professional life as fulfilli ng, beneficial, and stress-free as possible.

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Animal Liberation Front (ALF) Background and Goals

Animal Liberation Front (ALF) Background and Goals Animal Liberation Front (ALF) has no firmly established date of origin. It was founded either in the late 1970s or early 1980s.  ALF maintains an association with PETA, (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals). In the mid-1980s, PETA often reported to the press when anonymous ALF activists took animals from U.S. laboratories. ALF activists have also been closely associated with Stop Huntington Animal Cruelty (SHAC), a movement aimed at shutting down Huntingdon Life Sciences, a European animal testing company. Actions against HLS have included bombing property. The Animal Liberation Press Offices, which operate on several continents, issue statements on behalf of not only ALF, but also more militant groups such as the Animal Rights Militia, which emerged into public view in 1982 when it claimed responsibility for a letter bomb sent to former UK Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and several English legislators. Objective ALFs objective, in its own terms, is to end animal abuse. They do this by liberating animals from exploitative situations, such as in laboratories where they are used for experiments and causing financial damage to animal exploiters. According to the groups current website, ALFs mission is to effectively allocate resources (time and money) to end the property status of nonhuman animals. The objective of the mission is to abolish institutionalized animal exploitation because it assumes that animals are property. Tactics and  Organization According to the ALF, Because ALF actions may be against the law, activists work anonymously, either in small groups or individually, and do not have any centralized organization or coordination. Individuals or small groups take the initiative to act in the name of the ALF then report their activities to one of its national press offices. The organization has no leaders, nor can it truly be considered a network, since its various members/participants do not know each other, or even of each other. It calls itself a model of leaderless resistance. There is a certain amount of ambiguity about the role of violence for the group. ALF pledges its commitment to not harming either human or non-human animals, but its members have taken actions which can justifiably be considered as threatening violence against people. Origins and Context Concern for animal welfare has a history stretching back to the late 18th century. Historically, animal protectionists, as they were once known, focused on ensuring that animals were treated well, but from within a humanist framework that envisions humans as responsible for the earths other creatures. Beginning in the 1980s, there was a noticeable shift in this philosophy, toward an understanding that animals have autonomous rights. According to some, this movement was essentially an extension of the civil rights movement. Indeed, one of the participants in a 1984 break-in at the University of Pennsylvania to retrieve animals used in scientific experiments, said at the time that: We may seem like radicals to you. But we are like the abolitionists, who were regarded as radicals too. And we hope that 100 years from now people will look back on the way animals are treated now with the same horror as we do when we look back on the slave trade.(quoted in William Robbins Animal Rights: A Growing Movement in the U.S., New York Times, June 15, 1984). Animal rights activists have been becoming increasingly militant since the mid-1980s, and increasingly willing to threaten people, such s animal researchers and their families as well as corporate employees. The FBI named the ALF a domestic terrorist threat in 1991, and the Department of Homeland Security followed suit in January 2005. Notable Actions July 1984: ALF activists stole three cats, two dogs and eight pigeons from University of Pennsylvania laboratoriesThe ALF and the Earth Liberation Front (ELF) took responsibility for smashing Bank of New York windows and posting graffiti such as BNY Kills Puppies to protest the banks business with Huntingdon Life Sciences.2004: Construction of an Oxford University research lab intended to include animal experimentation was halted following repeated vandalizing at the construction site, and threats to shareholders, attributed to ALF2006: ALF claimed responsibility for leaving an incendiary device on UCLA researcher Lynn Fairbanks front porch for her work as a sadistic monkey killer.

Sunday, February 16, 2020

Discuss the definition and the sources of christian theology and how Essay

Discuss the definition and the sources of christian theology and how is Systematic theology related to Biblical theology and Christian ethics - Essay Example ers to the knowledge of man about the supernatural, who is the creator, and this belief is fundamentally integrated into man’s constitution that, he is religious in every aspect (McGrath, 2011, pp. 21). Theology refers to the intellectual circle of religious constructs and observance. Religion refers to the spiritual experience of man and theology is the explanation or the rationale behind the experience (Gonzalez and Perez, 2002, pp. 89). Religion and theology are related in the same ways that astronomy is related to heavenly bodies, the human body and physiology and the earth and geology. In a similar manner, to the way the earth and the stars existed before humans had formulated knowledge and study about them, so were men intrinsically religious, prior to their formulation of theology (McGrath, 2001, pp. 12). Humans are instinctively religious, even without the need for reasoning religious issues out. It is not Christianity alone, but all other religions have their own theo logy. In the case of traditional religious systems, theology refers to the reasons underlying the religious actions of the fetish worshiper, irrespective of the fact that the actions may be crude (Gonzalez and Perez, 2002, pp. 90). This line of though demonstrates the intellectual aspect of the religious inclination of humans, irrespective of whether their theological practices are traditional or modern in nature. The major divisions of theological science include the exegetical, historical, the systematic and the practical divisions. Christian theology refers to the study that seeks to develop a coherent framework of Christian faith and practice. The constructs of Christian theology are primarily grounded on the writings of the bible teachings contained in the new and the Old Testament, together with traditional beliefs and the practices of the Old Testament (Gonzalez and Perez, 2002, pp. 18-19). Christian theologians use the rational analysis of bible teachings, biblical exogenesis, and